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In This Issue


(Complete contents on back cover )

31 March 1965


President: F. H. RrnpnceE (New York, N. Y., U. S. A.)

Ist Vice President: I. F. B. Common (Canberra, Australia )

Vice President: RaMon AGENjo ( Madrid, Spain)

Vice President: H. E. Hinton (Bristol, England)

Treasurer: GrorGE Ente (Lancaster, Penna., U. S. A.) Asst. Treasurer: Smwney A. HEssEL (Washington, Conn., U. S. A.)

Secretary: Joxun C. Downey (Carbondale, Ili., U. S. A.) Asst. Secretary: FLoyp W. Preston (Lawrence, Kansas, U. S. A.)


Terms expire Dec. 1965: Suiceru A. Az (Showaku, Nagoya, Japan) LINCOLN P. Brower (Amherst, Mass., U. S. A.) Terms expire Dec. 1966: P. KimsBauu (Sarasota, Fla., U. S. A.) W. Harry LancE, Jr. (Davis, Calif., U. S. A.) Terms expire Dec. 1967: Hirosui Kuroxo (Fukuoka, Japan)

D. F. Harpwick (Ottawa, Canada)

and ex-officio: the above six elected Officers and the Editor

The object of The Lepidopterists’ Society, which was formed in May, 1947, and formally constituted in December, 1950, is “to promote the science of lepidopterology in all its branches, . . . to issue a periodical and other publications on Lepidoptera, to facilitate the exchange of specimens and ideas by both the professional worker and the amateur in the field; to secure cooperation in all measures” directed toward these aims (Constitution, Art. Il). A special goal is to encourage free interchange among the lepidopterists of all countries.

Membership in the Society is open to all persons interested in any aspect of lepidopterology. All members in good standing receive the Journal and the News of the Lepidopterists' Society. Institutions may subscribe to the Journal but may not become members. Prospective members should send to the Treasurer the full dues for the current year, together with their full name, address, and special lepidopterological interests. All other correspondence concerning membership and general Society business should be addressed to the Secretary. Remittance in dollars should be made payable to The Lepidopterists’ Society. There are three paying classes of membership:

Active Members—annnal dues $6.00 (U. S. A.) Sustaining Members—annual dues $15.00 (U.S. A.) Life Members—single sum $125.00 (U.S. A.)

Dues may be paid in Europe to our official agent: E. W. Classey, 353 Hanworth Road, Hampton, Middx., England.

In alternate years a list of members of the Society is issued, with addresses and special interests. All members are expected to vote for officers when mail ballots are distributed by the Secretary annually. There are four numbers in each volume of the Journal, scheduled for February, May, August, November, and eight numbers of the News each year.

The Lepidopterists’ Society is a non-profit, scientific organization. The office of publication is Yale University, Peabody Museum, New Haven, Connecticut. Second class postage paid at Lawrence, Kansas, U.S.A.


Tae LeriporprTerRists’ SOCIETY

Volume 19 1965 Number 1


Roy O. Kenpau! San Antonio, Texas, U.S.A.

This is the fifth in a series of papers recording larval food plants for Texan butterflies and skippers. In this paper, 62 plant species represent- ing 8 families are given for the following 24 hesperiids. Arrangement for the skippers follows dos Passos (1964):


Calpodes ethlius (Stoll), Amblyscirtes vialis (Edwards), Polites vibex praeceps (Scudder), Hesperia viridis (Edwards), Copxodes aurantiaca (Hewitson ).


Pholisora catullus (Fabricius), Celotes nessus (Edwards), Heliopetes laviana (Hewitson), Heliopetes macaira (Reakirt), Pyrgus communis communis (Grote), Erynnis baptisie (Forbes), Erynnis horatius (Scud- der & Burgess), Gesta gesta invisus (Butler & Druce), Achlyodes thraso tamenund (Edwards), Systasea pulverulenta (R. Felder), Staphylus mazans mazans (Reakirt), Cogia hippalus outis (Skinner), Thorybes bathyllus (Smith), Thorybes pylades (Scudder) and “form” albosuffusa H. A. Freeman, Achalarus lyciades (Geyer), Achalarus toxeus (Pl6tz), Urbanus proteus (Linnaeus), Chioides catillus albofasciatus (Hewitson ), Epargyreus clarus clarus (Cramer).

Each of these species is treated separately in the order given. Also, a chart of larval food plants, arranged alphabetically by plant family and genus, summrizes these data.

1 Acknowledgment is made to the Rob and Bessie Welder Wildlife Foundation for providing a portion of the publication costs.


KENDALL: Texas Hesperiidae Vol. 19, no. 1

Calpodes ethlius (Stoll). The brazilian skipper is probably more com- mon and widespread in Texas than present records indicate. It seems to be closely associated with its larval food plants, cannas. In the lower Rio Grande Valley, Freeman (1951) has collected C. ethlius from April to December. In more northern parts of its range, the flight period is from March to October, indicating a more prolonged larval or pupal diapause.

The present known distribution of this skipper in Texas is limited to eight counties: Bexar, May—Oct.; Cameron, Apr.—Dec.; Dallas, June- Oct.; Fayette, May; Hidalgo, Apr.—Dec.; San Patricio, Oct—Nov.; Tar- ' rant, Sept.; and Travis, Sept. The writer has reared larvae through which were collected on Canna indica L., but the food plant has never been grown in the laboratory garden; therefore, a careful study of its life history has not been made.

Bexar Co.: 16 June 1956. Six larvae, collected on C. indica, pupated from 28 June to 11 July. Adults emerged from 6 to 18 July.

Fayette Co.: 26 May 1956. At a cafe in Schulenburg where cannas were grown as ornamentals, numerous larvae were present in their rolled leaf nests.

Tarrant Co.: 22 September 1962. Attention was called to numerous larvae on cannas growing in a yard in Fort Worth. One pupa, in its rolled leaf shelter, was taken. A male emerged 23 September.

Amblyscirtes vialis (Edwards). The roadside skipper’s distribution in Texas is not well defined. It appears to be more or less confined to the north-central and northeastern portions of the State. The species has been collected from the first week in April to June. Additional rearing is necessary to determine the number of broods in Texas.

Brown Co.: 9 April 1964. At Lake Brownwood State Park, a female was col- lected and kept for eggs. It was confined with Stenotaphrum secundatum (Walt. ) Kuntze and Cynodon dactylon (L.) Pers. More than 50 eggs were deposited by 20 April when the female died. Eggs were deposited on both grasses; they started hatching 18 April. Newly hatched larvae were offered S. secundatum which they sampled but then refused, and many died. They were then offered C. dactylon on which they matured. Pupation occurred: 18 May (2), 19 May (2), 20 May (5), 21 May (2), 22 May (1), 23 May'(1), 94 May (1), 26° May, (lesz \iawaene and 30 May (1). Six 6 6 and 59 @, emerged: 27 May (16,192), 29 May (24 ¢), 31 May (16, 229), 4 June (1¢@), 5 June (14), and 9 June (1¢).-

When fully mature, larvae seek the ground to pupate. Larvae cut circular disks from a paper table napkin on the bottom of the container, and fashioned nests in which to pupate. Immature stages were preserved and live pupae furnished Dr. C. L. Remington for chromosome studies.

Five other Texas counties in which the writer collected A. vialis in 1964 are: Cherokee, 4 Apr.; Harrison, 5 & 6 Apr., eggs obtained from one female but all first instar larvae perished on S. secundatum; Smith, av Nog Ieavareriie to 8) ayoreg ITawiG, (o v\yorr.

Polites vibex preeceps (Scudder). The whirlabout has been recorded

1965 Journal of the Lepidopterists’ Society 3

as a constant flyer in extreme southern Texas by Freeman (1951). While an occasional specimen may be collected throughout the year in certain localities, its principal flight is from April to October. During this period considerable overlapping of broods occurs. P. praeceps is well adapted to metropolitan living where it oviposits on bermuda, Cynodon dactylon Pers.; St. Augustine, Stenotaphrum secundatum Kuntze; and doubtless other local grasses. Additional fieldwork is nec- essary to establish its exact range over the State and the blend zone with Polites vibex brettoides (Edwards). It would seem to have a larval or pupal diapause; additional rearing will determine this.

Bexar Co.: 30 July 1963. A female was collected in the laboratory garden in San Antonio, where the species is well established, and kept for eggs. During the next five days, 90 eggs were deposited on S. secundatum, after which the female was released. Eggs started hatching 3 August. Larvae were reared through on S. secundatum, pupating: 1 Sept. (1), 6 Sept. (5), 7 Sept. (12), 9 Sept. (10), 12 Sept. (1), and 14 Sept. (4). Fifteen ¢ ¢ and 139 2 emerged: 11 Sept. (12), iasepe (ad 6, 12), 16 Sept. (446 6, 59 9), 17 Sept. (46 6, 2992), 18 Sept. ego) 0) Sept (14, 19), 22 Sept. (14), 23 Sept. (12), and 25 Sept. (12). Immatures were preserved. At a sidewalk cafe in San Antonio, on 30 Sept. 1963 a female was observed to deposit 15 ova in about 10 minutes, one at a time, on C. dactylon.

Cameron Co.: 18 October 1963. At Brownsville, a female was collected and kept alive for eggs. It received only modest care in the improvised field laboratory, and after depositing five eggs it perished. Eggs hatched 26 October. Two first instar larvae were accidentally lost. The remaining three, reared through on S. secunda- tum, pupated 14 & 17 December and 8 January. Adults, emerged: 8 Jan. (19), 11 Jan. (1¢@), and 31 Jan. (19). A most interesting discovery was that these females did not have the usual blurred markings on the HW beneath; instead, the marks were sharp and well defined.

The writer has collected P. preeceps in four other Texas counties: Comal, 27 July 1963; Hidalgo, 31 Mar. 1960, 17 Oct. 1963; Kimble, 20 July 1963; San Patricio, 14 & 15 Sept., 138 & 20 Oct. 1963; and Zavala, 18 Aug. 1963.

Hesperia viridis (Edwards). The green skipper’s range in Texas ap- pears to be from the Edwards Plateau northward. Too few records have been published for the State to give much of an idea as to its exact distribution. Present field data would indicate two distinct flights: April-June and August—October. Reared adults have emerged in Janu- ary and February, but this may not occur in nature. There is some indi- cation that viridis may feed all winter on a grass such as Bouteloua gracilis Lag. and pupate in spring, emerging in April or May, depend- ing on climatic conditions. May is by far the best time to collect viridis in the southern part of its range.

Bexar Co.: 6 October 1963. Near the intersection of Babcock Road and F.M. 1604, NW of San Antonio, 13 adults were collected on wild flowers along the road. Two females collected 6 October were kept alive for eggs. They were caged over Stenotaphrum secundatum Kuntze. The following day several ova were deposited

4 KENDALL: Texas Hesperiidae Vol. 19h nonal

on the grass and two on the container. By 8 October, 14 ova had been deposited, more than half of them on the container. One female died 8 Oct., the other was then offered Cynodon dactylon (L.) Pers. Eighteen eggs were deposited the fol- lowing day, all on the grass. First instar larvae were offered S. secundatum which they accepted reluctantly. Numerous larvae died by mid-December. The survivors were then offered C. dactylon. Only two larvae died following the transfer. Still later, larvae were offered Lolium perenne L., which they accepted. Five larvae were reared through, pupating 1, 11, 21, & 28 January and 1 February 1964. Adults, emerged: 28 Jan. (1¢), 5 Feb. (19), 12 Feb. (136), 22 heb Gie)) eamdas Heb, (12).

This is believed to be the first Bexar County record for H. viridis. On 9 October, Roy W. Quillin collected one specimen at Helotes, a few © miles west of this spot, and on 10 & 11 October, Dr. J. W. Tilden col- lected 35 specimens near the first mentioned spot.

The writer has collected viridis in only two other Texas counties: Blanco, 3 May 1963; Comal, 11 May 1958, 15 & 22 May 1960, and 21 May 1962. Freeman (1951) and MacNeill (1964) have recorded it from several other Texas counties.

Copezeodes aurantiaca (Hewitson). The orange skipperling, common at times, may be found in all major botanical areas of Texas. It has been collected from February to November. C. aurantiaca is most often seen around patches of Bermuda grass, Cynodon dactylon Pers., its only known larval food plant. Since the food plant is a perennial, dying back with the first hard freeze, a pupal diapause is indicated.

Bexar Co.: 30 June 1956. A female collected in the laboratory garden at San Antonio deposited numerous eggs on C. dactylon the same day. Ova started hatch- ing 4 July. Fifty-six larvae were inventoried 15 July. Larvae pupated: 19 July (8), 20 July (2), 21 July (2), 23 July (5), 24 July (3), 26 July (l)) 23) |aulsGS)) eaters (5), 6 Aug. (1), and 7 Aug. (1). In addition to immatures which were preserved, 164 6 and 139 2 emerged: 24 July (14), 25 July (36 ¢ ), 26 July (26 6, 19), 27 July (286 S, 19), 28 July (13, 19), 29 July (146, 19) 30 July (ieee ee July (13, 1@), 1 Aug. (16), 2 Aus: (290), 3 Aug.) (299) Guest Ges aa Im, (26 &, 1@), S Aue (©), amc! IO Ane, )).

Another female, collected in the laboratory garden 13 September 1958, deposited a quantity of ova on C. dactylon. Eggs started hatching 18 September. The first larva pupated 11 October. Adults emerged in due course but emergence dates were not recorded.

Pholisora catullus (Fabricius). The common sooty-wing ranges over the entire state of Texas. In certain sections, it has been collected each month of the year. Its principal flight, however, is from March to November. During this time July and November are the least likely months to find it on the wing. This species has a larval diapause which results in adults mostly in March. Immatures have been collected in nature on Amaranthus caudatus L., A. spinosus L., A. retroflexus L., Chenopodium album L., C. ambrosioides L., and C. berlandieri Moq.

Bexar Co.: 27 August 1956. In a city alley near the laboratory, 13 larvae, two of which were parasitized, were found on A. spinosus. Larvae pupated from 26 Aug.

1965 Journal of the Lepidopterists’ Society 5

to 5 Sept. Six ¢¢ and 59 9, emerged: 2 Sept. (19), 4 Sept. (12), 5 Sept. meceosept. (12), 7 Sept. (26 6), 8 Sept. (146, 19),,10 Sept. (19), and 11 Sept. (24 6). At another location just north of San Antonio, seven larvae were found 11 November 1956 on A. retroflexus. Three of these proved to be parasitized. Two larvae remained in diapause until 22 April 1957 after which they perished, probably due to dehydration. One male emerged 3 February and another male on 11 February 1957; pupation dates unobserved. In the laboratory garden 18 May 1958, numerous larvae were observed on A. spinosus. Several were collected and pupation occurred 25 May. Emergence dates were not recorded. A female taken 30 August 1958 deposited 23 eggs on A. spinosus under laboratory conditions; all Ova were preserved.

A few miles south of San Antonio, a female was collected 23 April 1960 while flying around C. album. Examination of the plant disclosed one larva which later died of parasitism. The captive female deposited numerous ova on C. album, and these later hatched. Due to improper care, most of the larvae were lost to fungus. All other larvae and pupae were preserved.

North of San Antonio, 15 larvae were found 6 August 1960 on C. album. Five of these died from parasitism or other causes, the remainder pupated in due course matheo dio. and 42 9 emerging: 16 Aug. (26 6); 17 Aug. (1¢@), 21 Aug. (19), Pau bo) 96 Aue. (34 6), 28 Aug. (1¢2), and 29 Aug. (1¢).. On 8 April 1961, four larvae were collected on C. album which pupated in due course. Adults, emerged: 29 Apr. (26 6), 11 May (192), and 27 May (19). On 5 October 1963, two females were observed to oviposit on A. retroflexus. They were not collected.

Cameron Co.: 21 April 1962. At the Laguna Atascosa National Wildlife Refuge, four larvae were collected on C. ambrosioides. Larvae matured in due course with adults emerging: 3 May (14,192), 7 May (1@), and 13 May (1¢@). At another location in the county, about 16 miles SE of Brownsville, seven larvae were collected 19 October 1963 on A. caudatus. Three of these entered diaspause; the remaining four pupated in due course. One pupa died. Adults emerged: 6 Nov. (1é), 7 Nov. (12), and 2 Dec. (14). The three larvae in diapause had not pupated 15 February 1964 when this paper was prepared.

Guadalupe Co.: 7 July 1962. At a roadside park on U. S. Highway 90, three miles E of Kingsbury, one larva was collected on A. retroflexus which produced a male 20 July.

Live Oak Co.: 10 September 1960. On Texas Highway 9 about eight miles NW of Mathis, one larva was found on C. berlandieri which produced a female 2: October.

San Patricio Co.: 21 August 1960. At Lake Corpus Christi State Park, one larva collected on C. berlandieri pupated 22 August and a male emerged 30 August. At the Welder Wildlife Refuge, one larva was found 5 July 1963 on C. berlandieri; it pupated 13 July and a male emerged 20 July. Again, near Mathis, one larva was collected 15 September 1963 on A. hybridus; it pupated 16 September and a female emerged 24 September.

Val Verde Co.: 1 May 1961. At Lake Walk, two larvae were collected on C. berlandieri which produced one male and one female 17 May. At a roadside park on U. S. Highway 277 south of Del Rio near the county line, two larvae were found 17 August 1963 on A. hybridus. Larvae pupated 21 & 23 August. Adults emerged: 27 Aug. (19) and 29 Aug. (1¢).

Zavala Co.: 18 August 1963. At Batesville, three larvae were collected on A. hybridus. One larva which was thought to be ready to pupate, escaped when left exposed overnight. The other two pupated 23 & 29 August. Adults emerged: 28 Aug. (19) and 4 Sept. (1¢ ).

Larval habits of this species are quite interesting. The first instar larva folds over a small portion of the leaf as a shelter. It leaves the shelter to

6 KENDALL: Texas Hesperiidae Vol. 19, no. 1

feed. Upon returning home, the larva rests with its anal end near the open door. It now leisurely digests the consumed forage and ejects frass some distance from the shelter.

Celotes nessus (Edwards). The streaky skipper flies from March to November in Texas. Earliest and latest dates on which C. nessus has been taken by the writer are 9 March and 12 November. Reared speci- mens have emerged as late as 25 November. Kendall (1959) gave Abu- tilon incanum (Link) Sweet as a larval food plant for nessus. As a result of additional research four more species of malvaceous plants are now | reported: Althaea rosea L., Sida filipes Gray, Sphaeralcea lobata (Woot.) Kearney (det. Dr. B. H. Warnock, Sul Ross State College), and Wissadula amplissima (L.) R. E. Fries.

Bexar Co.: 9 May 1963. Examination of S. filipes, which had been planted in the laboratory garden a year earlier, disclosed three larvae of nessus feeding on it. They were taken into the laboratory and reared to maturity on this plant. The first larva pupated 31 May. Adults emerged: 8 June (1¢ ), 14 June (14 ), and 11 July (192).

Blanco Co.: 3 May 1963. On U. S. Highway 281 at Little Blanco River, two larvae were found on Abutilon incanum. These larvae were later lost due to im- proper care in the laboratory.

Bosque Co.: 22 September 1962. At Meridian State Park five larvae were col- lected on A. incanum, but one soon died. The first two of these larvae pupated 9 & 10° October.. Adults emerged: 17 Oct. (14), 18 Oct (1g), 24 Och Ga eeand 14 Nov. (1¢é).

Cameron Co.: 21 April 1962. At the Laguna Atascosa National Wildlife Refuge three larvae were collected on W. amplissima. The plant on which these larvae were found was almost dormant due to drought. Two of the larvae pupated in due course; a male emerged 15 May and a female 4 June. The third larva entered dia- pause about 6 May. Examination 11 August disclosed the larva quite blanched and shrunken. In an attempt to break this diapause the larva was placed on a piece of moist cotton and placed near the laboratory window where the afternoon sun could strike it. Examination the following day showed the larva had not only become elon- gated, it had secured the leaf, under which it was hiding, to the cotton with strands of silk. The larva pupated 13 August, which was the twenty-first consecutive day of local temperatures equal to or greater than 100° F. A male emerged 20 August 1962.

Comal Co.: 27 July 1963. Near New Braunfels one larva was found on A. inca- num. Larva pupated 23 August and a male emerged 30 August.

Jeff Davis Co.: 1 May 1961. At Davis Mountains State Park ova and larvae were found on S. lobata. Lou E. Walker, Park Manager, kindly permitted me to remove some of these “weeds” for transplanting. The plants survived the long journey back to the laboratory but they failed to recover in time to serve the in- tended purpose. It was now necessary to offer the larvae a substitute. A. rosea was provided and found acceptable. The larvae matured in due course and adults emerged: 28 May (14 ); ex ovis 6 June (14), 9 June (19). All other immatures were preserved.

Kimble Co.: 20 July 1963. At Junction ten larvae were collected on A. incanum. Some of these were first instar. In the laboratory, four larvae proved to have been parasitized; the remaining six were then placed on a caged living plant 5 August. The plant was again carefully examined 20 August; all that could be found was an empty pupal case. Presumably ants had eaten the adult after it died; the same might have happened to the larvae.

1965 Journal of the Lepidopterists’ Society i

Maverick Co.: 17 August 1963. At a roadside park on U. S. Highway 277 south of Quemado, one larva was collected on A. incanum. It later died, but the cause was undetermined.

McCulloch Co.: 14 August 1961. On U. S. Highway 377 at roadside park which marks the geographical center of Texas, two larvae were found on A. incanum. One of these died and the other pupated in due course and a female emerged 13 Sep- tember 1961.

Nueces Co.: 10 November 1962. At Hazel Bazemore Park near Calallen, two larvae were collected on A. incanum. About the beginning of December the larvae entered diapause. An attempt to break larval diapause was made 16 April 1963. Larvae were placed on moist facial tissue and placed near a laboratory window where the morning sun struck them. Both larvae pupated 19 April with adults emerging 27 April ( 6) and 28 April ( @ ).

San Patricio Co.: 26 April 1962. At the Welder Wildlife Foundation Refuge, 34 larvae were collected on A. incanum. They varied in age from first to last instar, the first of which pupated 2 May. Ten live pupae were provided for other scientific research. Adults emerged: 10 May (1é6), 11 May (26 6), 13 May (14), 15 May Peo loeMay (26 6, 1°), 17 May (2646), 18 May (12), 19 May (1¢), 23 meer oO)» 24 May (16), 27 May (19), 1 June (29 @ ), 11 June (26 @ ). Again at the Welder Refuge 10 November 1962, two more larvae were found on this plant. These larvae entered diapause about 1 December. Examination of them on 3 April 1963 disclosed one larva to be dead. On 18 April the remaining larva was placed on moist cotton and put in a sunny spot; it pupated 23 April and a female emerged 4 May.

Travis Co.: 2 September 1960. At Zilker Park in Austin, 14 larvae were collected on A. incanum. Most of these matured in due course but no emergence records were maintained.

Uvalde Co.: 30 April 1961. On U. S. Highway 90 near Cline, two larvae were collected on A. incanum. These larvae were reared through and males emerged 21 & 26 May.

The distribution of C. nessus in Texas appears to be west of a line from Gainesville, Cooke County to Brownsville in Cameron County. The writer has collected nessus in eight other Texas counties: Atascosa 31 Mar. 1957, Bandera 2 Apr. 1959, Dimmit 6 June 1960, Guadalupe 26 Aug. 1962, Jim Wells 5 Apr. 1962, Kinney 22 Mar. 1961, Kleberg 22 Mar. 1961, and Wilson 15 Aug. 1959.

Heliopetes laviana (Hewitson). Although the laviana skipper has been taken throughout the year in the lower Rio Grande Valley of Texas, laboratory studies indicate a larval diapause. The best place to find laviana is around the edge of brushy areas where malvaceous plants grow. Immatures have been found in nature on Abutilon abutiloides (Jacq.) Garcke, Sida filipes Gray, and Malvastrum americanum (L.) Torr. (det. by Fred B. Jones). In the laboratory, larvae of laviana read- ily accepted Abutilon incanum ( Link.) Sweet and Wissadula holosericea (Scheele) Garcke.

Cameron Co.: 24 October 1960. At the U.S.D.A. Research Center in Brownsville, a cursory examination of several experimental malvaceous plants disclosed one last instar larva on A. abutiloides. The larva was removed and reared through, thanks to Perry A. Glick, U.S.D.A. Entomologist. The larva pupated 3 November and a male

8 KENDALL: Texas Hesperiidae Vol. 19, no. 1

emerged 14 November 1960. Again at Brownsville, near the NW edge of the city where U. S. Highway 281 crosses a railroad, one larva was collected on A. abuti- loides, 17 October 1963. The writer was accompanied by Mrs. Kendall and Dr. J. W. Tilden. This larva pupated 23 October and a female emerged 4 November 1963.

Hidalgo Co.: 23 October 1960. Along an irrigation canal south of Mission, near the village of Madero, one larva was collected on A. abutiloides. Also the same day, four more were collected near Weslaco on this plant. One larva and one pupa were preserved. Pupation occurred from 29 October to 13 November. Adults emerged: 8 Nov. (126), 17 Nov. (1¢ ), and 28 Nov. (1é¢ ). On 16 October 1963, three larvae were found on M. americanum near an irrigation canal on U. S. Highway 281 at the south edge of Edinburg. Two larvae pupated 30 October and the third on 10 November. Adults emerged: 13 Nov. (22 @) and 24 Nov. (1@ ). !

Jim Wells Co.: 23 October 1960. On U. S. Highway 281 just north of Premont in a fencerow, one small larva was found on A. abutiloides. It died 30 October, probably due to improper care in the laboratory.

Live Oak Co.: 23 April 1961. At a roadside park on Texas Highway 9 near inter- section of FM 534, one larva was collected on S. filipes. Larva readily accepted W. holosericea in the laboratory and pupated 5 May. A male emerged 16 May 1961.

San Patricio Co.: 21 August 1960. At Lake Corpus Christi State Park, four miles SW of Mathis, one larva was found on A. abutiloides. A retum visit 10 September 1960 yielded 17 more larvae on this plant. The larvae ranged from first to last instar. These larvae pupated from 12-30 September. A series of immatures was preserved. Four males and five females emerged: 21 Sept. (19), 22 Sept. (1¢), 25 Sept. (16), 30 Sept. (19), 2 Oct. (19), 4 Oct. (16 ),.6 Oct. (2952) ander (1S ie

At the same location on 26 December 1960, three more larvae were found. These appeared to be in diapause. They were transported 100 miles north of the location where found. Here they were placed outdoors without food. An examination 11 February 1961 disclosed one larva dead, a second very hungry and moving about, the third, quite small, appeared in good health. The two remaining larvae were now placed on a living W. holosericea plant. The largest ate a few bites then moved beneath a leaf; the other crawled beneath a leaf without eating. Reexamination 15 March showed the largest one had bonded a leaf to the side of the screened cage and cut the petiole free. The other could not be found. The exact pupation date was not observed but a female emerged 1 April.

The Lake Corpus Christi site was visited again 7 October 1961. One larva which was collected pupated 30 October and a female emerged 28 November 1961. In addition to the larva, a gravid female was collected. Confined with A. abutiloides from the spot, it deposited 18 ova. In the laboratory, this same female deposited 25 more eggs on A. incanum. Sixteen eggs and other immatures were preserved. Eggs started hatching about 6:30 P.M. CST 12 October. The larvae were offered A. incanum which they started eating about 90 minutes after hatching. Twenty-one larvae were inventoried 29 October. Except for one, all were then placed on a living A. incanum plant in the laboratory garden. The exceptional larva was kept in a laboratory environment where it pupated 6 December and a male emerged 18 December. An inventory on 23 December disclosed only 11 larvae on the living plant, all last instar. Another examination 14 January 1962, following a week of freezing temperatures (lowest 10° F.), showed all except two had perished. These two had fallen to the ground in their leaf nests. Taken into the laboratory, both pupated 31 January. A female emerged 19 February and a male on 20 February. Emergence most likely would have been a month later in the natural ecological environment.

The above rearings were conducted in Bexar County, about 100 miles north of the capture locality. Here the average date of first 32° F. freeze

1965 Journal of the Lepidopterists’ Society 9

in the fall is about two weeks earlier than where the larvae were col- lected. Additional research is necessary to determine what factors con- stitute the distribution barrier.

Systasea pulverulenta (Felder) larvae were also found on A. abuti- loides at Lake Corpus Christi in September, 1960. After collecting a few, it became quite easy to distinguish the two lepidopterous species by the type of shelter constructed. H. laviana simply pulls leaves together or folds them over to form the shelter while pulverulenta systematically eats away part of the leaf edge before constructing the shelter. First instar larvae of laviana eat away the leaf surface then fold it over at the weakened spot to form a protective shelter.

Heliopetes macaira (Reakirt). The macaira skipper is well established in the lower Rio Grande Valley of Texas. From there it ranges up the coast to San Patricio County. Freeman (1951) found it flying through- out the year in Hidalgo County. Its habitat is wooded or brushy areas where Turk’s cap, Malvaviscus drummondii T. & G., its larval food plant, grows. This deciduous plant may be found in semishady spots over most of central and southern Texas, but macaira appears to be confined to an area in southern Texas where the frost-free growing season is 300 days or more; see Hildreth & Orton (1963).

Although H. macaira was described in 1866, it is believed that nothing has been published on its larval food plants or life history. Based on limited rearing, an immature diapause is not indicated. Growth and development of immature stages is, however, retarded by temperatures under 60° F. Seven reared examples disclosed the immature life-span ranged from 71 to 150 days. Further investigation may show even a

greater range. The life of each example, in days and in the order of peeurmence, is summarized: EGG TO ADULT; 71 (4), 90 (2), 99 (¢), MOG 2), 116 (2), 148 (6), and 150 days (¢). Ece ro PUPA: 63, 68, 88, 98, 108, 126, and 134. pays IN PUPAL STAGE ONLY: 8, 12, 11, 8, 8, 22, and 16.

First instar larvae eat buds, blossoms, fruits, and juvenile leaves. A formal shelter is not constructed. Larvae hide in blossoms, brackets around fruits and blossoms, dead leaves on the plant, or any other con- venient place. Older larvae may construct a shelter or simply seek the ground when not feeding. One observed larva climbed halfway up the plant to eat then returned to the ground and rested on a fallen leaf, unprotected there except for its excellent camouflage. It finally pupated on bare ground. Most larvae, however, pupate in a makeshift shelter secured at the cremaster. Those that do make shelters do so by pulling

10 KENDALL: Texas Hesperiidae Vol. 19, no. 1

leaves together with strands of silk. The petiole of one leaf is then cut into. When it dries, this leaf forms a roof over the nest.

San Patricio Co.: 4 July 1963. At the Welder Wildlife Foundation Refuge, along a trail near the Aransas River, a female was observed to oviposit on M. drum- mondii. Mrs. Kendall and the writer had thought for a year or more that this might be the larval food plant, but this was the first substantiating evidence. Mrs. Kendall caught the insect, also recovered the egg. In the laboratory, 34 more ova were deposited on terminal twigs and blossom buds of this plant. Eggs started hatching 9 July. Second instar larvae were placed on a living plant in the laboratory garden. On 28 August only one larva could be found. Ants were suspect. The one survivor pupated 5 September and a male emerged 13 September.

Again at the Welder Refuge, 13 October 1963, five egg-laying females were observed. One captive female deposited numerous eggs on M. drummondii twigs during the following three days. Eggs soon hatched and the larvae were doing quite well until a hard freeze killed the larval food plant early in December. A month later larvae had begun dying from starvation. On 15 January a few plants were found which had been protected from frost by oak trees. This was more than 100 miles north of the capture locality. Provided fresh leaves, three larvae continued to eat and mature. Two of these lived long enough to feed on new growth put forth on potted plants under glass. Pupation occurred: 20 Dec. (1), 10 Jan. (1), 17 Jan. (2), 20 Jan. (1), 30 Jan. (1), 17 Feb. (1), and 24 Feb. (1). Thea? janwanypmpac were forwarded to Dr. C. L. Remington for chromosome studies. Adults emerged: 1 Jan. (19:);-21 Jan. (16), 28 Jan: (19), 7 Feb. (16 ); WO Mar Ga peectaal

Mar. (14). Specimens representing various immature stages were preserved. Pyrgus communis communis (Grote). The checkered skipper is com- mon at times throughout Texas. In the southern part of the State, it has been collected each month of the year. It is least likely to be found in January, May, and December. Immatures have been collected on seven malvaceous plants: Callirhoe leiocarpa Martin, Sida (diffusa) filicaulis T. & G., Sida lindheimeri Gray, Sida rhombifolia L., Sphaeralcea angus- tifolia (Cav.) D. Don, Sphaeralcea cuspidata Gray, and Sphaeralcea lindheimeri Gray. In the laboratory, it was reared on Althaea rosea


Bandera Co.: 2 April 1959. On Park Road 37, a female was observed to oviposit on S. filicaulis. The plant was very small; the egg was preserved.

Bexar Co.: 18 November 1956. In San Antonio, a female was observed to ovi- posit on S. rhombifolia. Eggs were being deposited on the underside of leaves next to the ground, one at a time, on very small plants. Examination of several plants disclosed one larva feeding from within a folded leaf shelter. All immatures were lost. Wild females were again observed to oviposit on S. rhombifolia 28 August and 13 September 1957; ova were not collected. Still another female, collected 16 No- vember 1958 while ovipositing on S. rhombifolia, deposited seven ova under labora- tory conditions; the first instar larvae were preserved. Another female was observed to oviposit 30 August 1959 on S. rhombifolia; the eggs were left in the field. On 26 February 1961, a wild female deposited eggs on the blossom buds of C. leiocarpa growing in the laboratory garden; the eggs were not collected. On 20 August 1961, a female was seen to fly from one plant to another ovipositing on S. rhombifolia; the eggs were not collected. Three larvae were found 20 April 1963 on S. angusti- folia growing in the laboratory garden. This plant had been transplanted from Jeff Davis County two years earlier. Larvae pupated 27 & 28 April and 1 May. Adults emerged: 6 May (12), 7 May (19-), and 13 May (1¢@). Again on 5 October

1965 Journal of the Lepidopterists’ Society fe

1963, two females were seen ovipositing on S. rhombifolia in the laboratory garden.

Caldwell Co.: 10 June 1961. At the intersection of U. S. Highways 90 and 183, a female was observed to oviposit on Sida lindheimeri. Examination disclosed two larvae on the plant. The egg and one larva were lost before returning to the labora- tory, but there the second larva accepted A. rosea. It pupated 26 June and a male emerged 4 July 1961.

El Paso Co.: 15 June 1960. On U. S. Highway 80, SE of El Paso near the county line, a female was observed while ovipositing on S. angustifolia; the egg was not collected. The female was captured but failed to oviposit under laboratory condi- tions.

Maverick Co.: 17 August 1963. At a roadside park on U. S. Highway 277 near Quemado, a female was seen to oviposit on S. cuspidata; neither the egg nor female were collected.

San Patricio Co.: 14 September 1963. At the Welder Wildlife Foundation Ref- uge, four larvae were found on Sphaeralcea lindheimeri and one on Sida rhombifolia. The Sida feeder pupated 19 September and a male emerged 27 September. The other larvae pupated 17, 18, and 20 September with adults emerging: 25 Sept. (16) and 26 Sept. (392 2); one larva died. At the same location, a female was observed ovipositing on S. rhombifolia 12 October 1963; it was not collected.

Val Verde Co.: 11 May 1961. At Lake Walk, nine larvae were found on S. cus- pidata, one of which proved to be parasitized. The remaining eight larvae pupated in due course with adults emerging: 14 May (146, 22 2), 18 May (14), 20 May Peco Je Nay. (lS), and 26 May (29 9 ).

The writer has collected P. communis in 38 other Texas counties rep- resenting all major botanical areas of the State.

Erynnis baptisiz (Forbes). The distribution of the wild indigo dusky wing in Texas is not too well known at present, nor are the number of broods clearly defined. Freeman (1951) collected it in Dallas County in March, April, May, and August. He also observed females oviposit on Baptisia tinctoria R. Br., a cultivated species in Texas (Bailey, 1924), and reared larvae through on this plant. In the botanical Pineywoods area of eastern Texas where an abundance of five native Baptisia species may be found (Gould, 1962), the skipper has not been collected. An additional location by the present writer will bring to date all of the known records of baptisiz from Texas.

Nueces Co.: 1 September 1962. Near the Nueces County Park on Padre Island below Corpus Christi, a number of adults were observed flying about, some of them visiting wild flowers. A female was observed to oviposit on Baptisia laevicaulis (Gray) Small. It was collected and kept for egg laying in the laboratory. Another female was collected on blossoms of Helianthus argophyllus (Torr. & Gray). Ex- amination of several B. laevicaulis plants disclosed many eggs. The captive female deposited but five eggs before dying. Due to difficulty of keeping larval food plant

fresh, only three were reared to maturity and these emerged: 30 Sept. (2é 6) and 1 Oct. (1¢ ). Immatures were preserved.

Erynnis horatius (Scudder & Burgess).2 In Texas this skipper flies from February to November. Reared specimens have emerged in De-

2 Special thanks go to Dr. John M. Burns, Wesleyan University, who determined or verified the wiicers determination of the reared material in this study.

12 KENDALL: Texas Hesperiidae Vol. 19, no. 1

cember and January, but perhaps there are only three broods. It may be found around the edge of wooded areas where oak grows.

Dr. Alexander B. Klots (1951) points out that an old description of Chapman’s lists wisteria while Grossbeck and Watson listed oak as the larval food plant. He writes further that, “Someone should check this.” The purpose of this report is to present the results of widespread sam- pling in Arkansas, Louisiana, and Texas for immatures of this skipper. These collections, taken over a period of several years (1958-1963), have yielded sufficient immatures to remove any doubt that oak is a | larval food plant. During this same period, wisteria has been under constant surveillance with negative results.

Immatures were found in nature on the following species of oak: Quercus fusiformis Small (Texas), QO. hemisphzrica Bartr. (Louisiana ), QO. laurifolia Michx. (Texas), Q. marilandica Muenchh. (Texas), Q. migra WL. (Ark., La., Tex.), O. phellos L. (Texas), ©) siellacaay ames (Ark., La., Tex.), QO. texana Buckl. (Texas), QO. virginiana Mill. (Texas). In the laboratory, larvae readily accepted Q. shumardii Buckl. and Q. gambelii Nutt. Perhaps all species of oak are acceptable. Q. laurifolia was determined by Fred B. Jones, all other species by Dr. C. H. Muller, University of California, Santa Barbara.

IMMATURE STAGES. Ova are bonded singly to the tiny juvenile leaves in the tips of new growth. First instar larvae are incapable of eating other than very tender new leaves. This became apparent after witness- ing a number of casualties from eggs found in nature. While second instar larvae will survive on older leaves, larval growth appears to be stimulated by more tender foliage. This holds for the entire larval cycle. In certain geographical areas the collector may find gravid females pre- fer a single species of oak due to the frequency of new growth.

After progressing through four instars, larvae pupate in leaf shelters. The exuvium is eaten after each molt. First and second instar larvae construct very distinctive shelters. The larva makes a bilateral cut near the outer end of the leaf, approximately 45° to the center vein. The tip is then folded over, never under, where it is held in place by strands of silk. When resting, the larva hangs inverted from the top of the shelter. It eats away the edges of the roof and sometimes the foundation. A new shelter is constructed